BUET University Admission Guideline - Everything Explained

BUET University Admission Guideline - Everything Explained

BUET University Admission Guideline - Everything Explained
As an engineering aspirant, who missed BUET by a little margin and is currently studying at one of the universities of CKRUET Engineering universities, I have written this "BUET University Admission Guideline" for those who want a chance to get admitted to BUET. 
IELTS Fees in Bangladesh in 2024 - Fees of All Programs in BDT

IELTS Fees in Bangladesh in 2024 - Fees of All Programs in BDT

IELTS Fees in Bangladesh in 2024 - Fees of All Programs in BDT
If you are a student from Bangladesh and looking for IELTS fees, then you've come to the right place. In this post, we will list the IELTS fees in 2024 according to the IELTS programs and locations of examination center. This article provides detailed insights into the IELTS fees in Bangladesh in 2024, covering all programs and their costs in BDT.
How Money Works - Understanding How Money Works

How Money Works - Understanding How Money Works

Understanding How Money Works
Do you want to learn how money works, and how to manage your finances better? Do you want to understand the basic concepts and terms of money, such as currency, inflation, interest, and debt? Do you want to know how money affects the economy, the prices, and your life? 

If so, you are in the right place. In this article, we will explain how money works, and how to use it to achieve your financial goals. We will also answer some of the most common questions that people have about money and finance. By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of how money works, and how to make it work for you.


What Is Money

Money is a system of value that allows people to exchange goods and services in an economy. Money can be anything that people agree to use as a medium of exchange, such as coins, notes, shells, or digital records. Money can also be a store of value, which means that it can be saved and used in the future, and a unit of account, which means that it can be used to measure and compare the value of different goods and services.

Money has evolved over time, from physical objects, such as gold and silver, to paper and electronic money, such as dollars and bitcoins. Today, most money is controlled by governments and central banks, which issue and regulate the supply and demand of money in the economy. However, some money is created and used by private entities, such as banks and cryptocurrencies, which operate outside the government’s control.

Money works by influencing the behavior and decisions of people and businesses in the economy. Money affects how much people can buy and sell, how much they can save and invest, how much they can borrow and lend, and how much they can earn and spend. Money also affects the prices of goods and services, the level of economic activity and growth, and the distribution of wealth and income in the society.

Money works differently in different types of economies, such as market economies, where money is determined by the forces of supply and demand, and planned economies, where money is determined by the government’s policies and plans. Money also works differently in different types of financial systems, such as banking systems, where money is created and circulated by banks and other financial institutions, and monetary systems, where money is backed and supported by a commodity, such as gold or silver, or by a fiat, such as a government’s decree or law.

Money works best when it is stable, reliable, and efficient, which means that it can maintain its value and purchasing power over time, that it can be easily and widely accepted and exchanged, and that it can facilitate and promote economic growth and development. Money works worst when it is unstable, unreliable, and inefficient, which means that it can lose its value and purchasing power over time, that it can be difficult and costly to accept and exchange, and that it can hinder and harm economic growth and development.


How Money Is Created and Controlled

Money is created and controlled by different entities, depending on the type and nature of money. Here are some examples of how money is created and controlled in the economy:
  • Government-issued money: This is the money that is issued and controlled by the government, such as coins and notes. The government can create money by minting coins or printing notes, and can control money by setting the legal tender status, which means that the money must be accepted as a valid payment for debts. The government can also destroy money by withdrawing or recalling coins or notes from circulation.
  • Central bank-issued money: This is the money that is issued and controlled by the central bank, such as bank reserves and digital currency. The central bank can create money by lending money to commercial banks or buying assets from the market, and can control money by setting the interest rate, which means that the price of borrowing or lending money. The central bank can also destroy money by withdrawing money from commercial banks or selling assets to the market.
  • Commercial bank-issued money: This is the money that is issued and controlled by the commercial banks, such as deposits and loans. The commercial banks can create money by lending money to customers or buying assets from the market, and can control money by setting the reserve ratio, which means that the percentage of deposits that must be kept as reserves. The commercial banks can also destroy money by withdrawing money from customers or selling assets to the market.
  • Cryptocurrency-issued money: This is the money that is issued and controlled by the cryptocurrency networks, such as bitcoins and ethers. The cryptocurrency networks can create money by mining or validating transactions, and can control money by setting the protocol rules, which means that the mathematical and logical rules that govern the creation and transfer of money. The cryptocurrency networks can also destroy money by burning or losing coins or tokens.


How Money Affects Interest Rates and Debt

Money affects the cost of borrowing and lending, and how interest rates measure the return or the charge of money. Here are some examples of how money affects interest rates and debt in the economy:
  • Supply and demand of money: The supply and demand of money determine the interest rate, which is the price of money. When the supply of money is higher than the demand for money, the interest rate is low, which means that money is cheap and abundant, and borrowing and lending are easy and attractive. When the supply of money is lower than the demand for money, the interest rate is high, which means that money is expensive and scarce, and borrowing and lending are difficult and costly.
  • Risk and reward of money: The risk and reward of money determine the interest rate, which is the compensation of money. When the risk of money is high, such as due to inflation, default, or uncertainty, the interest rate is high, which means that money is risky and volatile, and lenders demand a higher return for lending their money. When the risk of money is low, such as due to stability, security, or confidence, the interest rate is low, which means that money is safe and stable, and lenders accept a lower return for lending their money.
  • Time value of money: The time value of money determines the interest rate, which is the opportunity cost of money. When the time value of money is high, such as due to high inflation, high growth, or high preference, the interest rate is high, which means that money is more valuable today than in the future, and lenders charge a higher interest for lending their money. When the time value of money is low, such as due to low inflation, low growth, or low preference, the interest rate is low, which means that money is less valuable today than in the future, and lenders charge a lower interest for lending their money.


How Money Affects Economic Growth and Development

Money affects the level and quality of economic activity and output, and how economic growth and development measure the progress and well-being of a society. Here are some examples of how money affects economic growth and development in the economy:
  • Money supply and demand: The money supply and demand affect the level and quality of economic activity and output, by influencing the aggregate demand and supply of goods and services in the economy. When the money supply and demand are balanced, the economy is in equilibrium, and the economic activity and output are optimal and efficient. When the money supply and demand are imbalanced, the economy is in disequilibrium, and the economic activity and output are suboptimal and inefficient. For example, when the money supply is higher than the money demand, the economy experiences inflation, which reduces the purchasing power of money, and lowers the real economic activity and output. When the money supply is lower than the money demand, the economy experiences deflation, which increases the purchasing power of money, and reduces the nominal economic activity and output.
  • Money circulation and velocity: The money circulation and velocity affect the level and quality of economic activity and output, by influencing the speed and frequency of money transactions in the economy. When the money circulation and velocity are high, the economy is dynamic and vibrant, and the economic activity and output are high and diverse. When the money circulation and velocity are low, the economy is stagnant and sluggish, and the economic activity and output are low and homogeneous. For example, when the money circulation and velocity are high, the economy experiences growth, which increases the income and wealth of the society, and improves the living standards and quality of life of the people. When the money circulation and velocity are low, the economy experiences recession, which decreases the income and wealth of the society, and worsens the living standards and quality of life of the people.
  • Money distribution and equality: The money distribution and equality affect the level and quality of economic activity and output, by influencing the allocation and access of money resources in the economy. When the money distribution and equality are fair and balanced, the economy is inclusive and equitable, and the economic activity and output are sustainable and resilient. When the money distribution and equality are unfair and unbalanced, the economy is exclusive and inequitable, and the economic activity and output are unstable and vulnerable. For example, when the money distribution and equality are fair and balanced, the economy experiences development, which enhances the capabilities and opportunities of the society, and promotes the social justice and harmony of the people. When the money distribution and equality are unfair and unbalanced, the economy experiences underdevelopment, which limits the capabilities and opportunities of the society, and causes the social injustice and conflict of the people.


How to Manage Your Money

Money is a tool that can help you achieve your financial goals, such as saving, investing, spending, and budgeting. However, money can also be a source of stress and anxiety, if you don’t know how to manage it properly. Therefore, it is important to learn how to manage your money, and how to use it to your advantage. Here are some tips and advice on how to manage your money better:
  • Create and follow a budget: A budget is a plan that shows how much money you earn, spend, save, and invest each month. A budget can help you track and control your money, and make sure that you live within your means, and that you allocate your money to your priorities and goals. To create a budget, you need to list your income and expenses, and compare them to see if you have a surplus or a deficit. Then, you need to adjust your budget to balance your income and expenses, and to allocate your money to your needs, wants, and savings. To follow a budget, you need to monitor and record your money transactions, and compare them to your budget plan, and make any necessary changes or corrections.
  • Pay yourself first: Paying yourself first means that you save or invest a portion of your income before you spend it on anything else. Paying yourself first can help you build your savings and investments, and achieve your long-term financial goals, such as retirement, education, or home ownership. To pay yourself first, you need to decide how much money you want to save or invest each month, and set it aside as soon as you receive your income, or automate it with a direct deposit or a transfer. Then, you need to spend the rest of your money on your expenses and other goals, and avoid touching your savings or investments, unless it is an emergency or a planned withdrawal.
  • Automate your savings: Automating your savings means that you use a tool or a service that automatically transfers a fixed amount of money from your checking account to your savings account, or from your income to your investment account, on a regular basis, such as weekly, biweekly, or monthly. Automating your savings can help you save money without thinking about it, and avoid the temptation and hassle of spending it. To automate your savings, you need to choose a tool or a service that suits your needs and preferences, such as a bank, an app, or a platform, and set up your savings amount, frequency, and destination. Then, you need to let the tool or the service do the work for you, and watch your savings grow over time.
  • Use a savings account or a piggy bank: A savings account or a piggy bank is a place where you store your money for future use, such as emergencies, goals, or purchases. A savings account or a piggy bank can help you save money safely and conveniently, and earn some interest or rewards. To use a savings account or a piggy bank, you need to choose a type and a provider that suits your needs and preferences, such as a bank, a credit union, or an online platform, and open an account or buy a piggy bank. Then, you need to deposit your money into your account or your piggy bank, and withdraw it when you need it or when you reach your goal.
  • Track and improve your saving performance: Tracking and improving your saving performance means that you measure and evaluate how well you are saving your money, and how you can save more or better. Tracking and improving your saving performance can help you monitor and adjust your saving progress and strategy, and achieve your saving goals faster and easier. To track and improve your saving performance, you need to use a tool or a service that helps you record and analyze your saving transactions and results, such as a spreadsheet, an app, or a platform, and set up your saving metrics and indicators, such as your saving rate, amount, or return. Then, you need to review and compare your saving performance to your saving plan and goals, and make any necessary changes or improvements.


How to Invest Money

Money is a tool that can help you generate more money, by buying and selling assets that appreciate in value, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, or cryptocurrencies. However, money can also be a source of risk and loss, if you don’t know how to invest it properly. Therefore, it is important to learn how to invest your money, and how to use it to your advantage. Here are some tips and advice on how to invest your money better:
  • Choose a suitable and diversified investment portfolio: An investment portfolio is a collection of assets that you own and manage, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, or cryptocurrencies. A suitable and diversified investment portfolio is one that matches your risk tolerance, time horizon, and financial goals, and that consists of different types of assets that have different characteristics and performance. To choose a suitable and diversified investment portfolio, you need to assess your risk tolerance, which is how much risk you are willing and able to take, your time horizon, which is how long you plan to invest your money, and your financial goals, which are what you want to achieve with your money. Then, you need to allocate your money to different asset classes, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, or cryptocurrencies, and to different sectors, industries, regions, or companies, according to your risk-reward profile and preferences.
  • Use various investment vehicles, platforms, and strategies: An investment vehicle is a product or a service that allows you to buy and sell assets, such as a stock, a bond, a mutual fund, an exchange-traded fund, a real estate investment trust, or a cryptocurrency. An investment platform is a tool or a service that allows you to access and manage your investment vehicles, such as an online broker, a robo-advisor, or a peer-to-peer lending platform. An investment strategy is a plan or a method that guides your investment decisions, such as a value investing, a growth investing, a dividend investing, or a dollar-cost averaging strategy. To use various investment vehicles, platforms, and strategies, you need to research and compare the features, benefits, costs, and risks of each option, and choose the ones that suit your needs and preferences. Then, you need to follow the instructions and rules of each option, and execute your investment transactions and operations.
  • Manage and monitor your investments: Managing and monitoring your investments means that you oversee and evaluate your investment portfolio, and make any necessary changes or adjustments. Managing and monitoring your investments can help you optimize and improve your investment performance and results, and achieve your investment goals faster and easier. To manage and monitor your investments, you need to use a tool or a service that helps you record and analyze your investment transactions and results, such as a spreadsheet, an app, or a platform, and set up your investment metrics and indicators, such as your return, risk, or diversification. Then, you need to review and compare your investment performance to your investment plan and goals, and make any necessary changes or improvements.


How to Spend Money

Money is a tool that can help you buy goods and services that make you happy or improve your quality of life, such as hobbies, travel, education, or health. However, money can also be a source of stress and anxiety, if you don’t know how to spend it wisely. Therefore, it is important to learn how to spend your money, and how to use it to your advantage. Here are some tips and advice on how to spend your money better:
  • Find and choose the best deals, offers, and discounts: Finding and choosing the best deals, offers, and discounts means that you look for and select the best prices and terms for the goods and services that you want to buy. Finding and choosing the best deals, offers, and discounts can help you save money and get more value for your money, and buy more or better goods and services with the same amount of money. To find and choose the best deals, offers, and discounts, you need to research and compare the prices and terms of different sellers and providers, such as online, offline, or direct, and use various tools and services that help you find and choose the best deals, offers, and discounts, such as coupons, codes, apps, or platforms. Then, you need to apply and use the best deals, offers, and discounts, and buy the goods and services that you want at the best prices and terms.
  • Avoid impulse buying and overspending: Impulse buying and overspending means that you buy goods and services that you don’t need or want, or that you spend more money than you can afford or plan. Impulse buying and overspending can harm your financial situation and goals, and cause you stress and regret. To avoid impulse buying and overspending, you need to control and discipline your emotions and behavior, and follow some rules and tips, such as setting a spending limit, making a shopping list, waiting before buying, paying with cash, or using a budget. Then, you need to stick to your rules and tips, and only buy the goods and services that you need or want, and that you can afford or plan.
  • Use a credit card or a debit card: A credit card or a debit card is a plastic or a digital card that allows you to pay for goods and services, by borrowing money from a bank or a financial institution, or by using money from your bank account. A credit card or a debit card can help you spend money conveniently and securely, and earn some benefits or rewards, such as cashback, points, or miles. To use a credit card or a debit card, you need to choose a type and a provider that suits your needs and preferences, such as a bank, a credit union, or an online platform, and apply for and get a credit card or a debit card. Then, you need to use your credit card or your debit card to pay for the goods and services that you want, and pay back your credit card balance or replenish your debit card balance.


Frequently Asked Questions about How Money Works

Here are some of the most common questions that people have about money and finance, along with their answers:

Q: How does the money works?

Money works as a exchanging medium. Money is something that allows people to obtain goods and services they need. It acts as a medium of exchange, a way to pay for things instead of directly trading one thing for another.

Governments and central banks control the supply of money by printing currency (bills and coins) and regulating how much money circulates. Banks also play a role by lending out money they receive as deposits.

When there is more money available, it makes goods and services more expensive to obtain - this is called inflation. When there is less money circulating, the opposite occurs and prices fall - this is called deflation.

Q: What gives money value?

The value of money comes from its scarcity and demand. If there's too much money printed, its value goes down because it becomes more abundant. If money is scarce, its value increases.

Q: What is the difference between money and wealth?

Money and wealth are related but different concepts. Money is a system of value that allows people to exchange goods and services in an economy. Wealth is the total amount of money and other valuable assets that a person or a group owns.

Money is a means to acquire wealth, but not the only one. Wealth can also be acquired by creating, inheriting, or discovering valuable assets, such as land, art, or natural resources. Money can also be lost or destroyed, while wealth can be preserved or increased, by investing, saving, or protecting valuable assets.

Q: What is the difference between income and revenue?

Income and revenue are related but different concepts. Income is the amount of money that a person or a group earns from their work, business, or investments. Revenue is the amount of money that a business or an organization receives from selling their goods or services.

Income is a measure of personal or household earnings, while revenue is a measure of business or organizational performance. Income can be calculated by subtracting expenses from revenue, while revenue can be calculated by multiplying price by quantity.

Q: What is the difference between saving and investing?

Saving and investing are related but different concepts. Saving is the process of setting aside and accumulating money for future needs and goals, such as emergencies, retirement, or education. Investing is the process of using money to generate more money, by buying and selling assets that appreciate in value, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, or cryptocurrencies.

Saving is a way to preserve and protect money, while investing is a way to grow and multiply money. Saving is usually less risky and less rewarding, while investing is usually more risky and more rewarding. Saving and investing are both important and complementary for achieving financial goals.


Conclusion

We hope this article has helped you understand how money works, and how to manage your finances better. We have also explained the basic concepts and terms of money, such as currency, inflation, interest, and debt, and answered some of the most common questions that people have about money and finance.

Remember, money is a system of value that allows people to exchange goods and services in an economy. Money works by influencing the behavior and decisions of people and businesses in the economy. Money works best when it is stable, reliable, and efficient, and works worst when it is unstable, unreliable, and inefficient.

Money works differently in different types of economies and financial systems, and you need to learn and adapt to the ones that you live and operate in. Money also works differently for different people and goals, and you need to find and follow the ones that suit you and your situation.

Money works for you when you use it to achieve your financial goals, such as earning, saving, investing, and spending money. Money also works for you when you use it to balance and optimize your personal and professional life, such as your happiness, health, relationships, and career.
5 Best Google Sandbox and Penalty Checker Tool in 2024

5 Best Google Sandbox and Penalty Checker Tool in 2024

Google Sandbox and Penalty Checker Tool to Use (2024)
Google sandbox and penalty checker tool can help you to find why your website is not ranking in Google. Google penalty checker tool helps you to find out whether your website got a penalty from Google or not so that you can take steps accordingly to improve the condition of your site. Sometimes getting penalized by Google deindexes all your pages from Google.
Redis Message Queue - Implementation - Commands

Redis Message Queue - Implementation - Commands

Redis Message Queue - Implementation - Commands
In this blog post, I will discuss the Redis Message Queue, Stream type of Redis. Redis has introduced a new data type called Stream type since 5.0, which is specially designed for message queues. There are many more message queues such as RabbitMQ, Kafka but here we will just discuss how to implement Redis as a message queue.
Node Js Router (With Express.js) - Explained

Node Js Router (With Express.js) - Explained

Node Js Router (With Express.js) - Explained
Node Js Router module is used to create endpoints for applications for handling client requests. A route is a chunk of Express code that links an HTTP verb (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc.) to a URL path/pattern and a function that handles that pattern.

Routes may be created in a variety of ways. We’ll be using the npm module express in this lesson. Router middleware is useful since it allows us to aggregate route handlers for a certain section of a website and accesses them using a single route prefix. We’ll store all of our library-related routes in a “catalogue” module, and we’ll maintain them separated if we add routes for managing user accounts or other tasks.

Node Js Router module

In a module called Login.js, we first construct Login routes. The code imports the Express application object uses it to acquire a Router object, and then uses the get() function to add a handful of routes to it. Finally, the Router object is exported by the module.


var express = require('express');
var router = express.Router();

// Login page.
router.get('/', function (req, res) {
  res.send('Login page');
})

// Register Page 
router.get('/about', function (req, res) {
  res.send('You can view Dashboard');
})

module.exports = router;
We call an instance of express.router(). we use those routes to view the Login page as well as Dashboard. we can access the Login page at https://localhost:3001/ and Dashboard at https://localhost:3001/about,


var Login = require('./Login.js');
// ...
app.use('/Login', Login);
In order to utilize the router module in our main app code, we must first require() it (Login.js). The Router is then added to the middleware processing path by using use() on the Express application with a URL path of ‘Login’.

Now we set a middleware as Login.js. Now our URL has been changed https://localhost:3001/Login/ and https://localhost:3001/Login/about.

We can create such routes more and then apply them to our application, this is a very powerful feature. A Router could be used for basic routes, authenticated routes, and API routes.

By generating numerous instances of the Router and applying them to our apps, we can make them more modular and versatile than ever before. We’ll now look at how to process requests with middleware.

Route Paths

The endpoints at which requests can be made are defined by the route routes. ‘/’, ‘/about’, ‘/book’, and ‘/any-random.path’ is the only strings we’ve seen so far, and they’re utilized precisely as stated.

String patterns can also be used as route routes. To create patterns of endpoints that will be matched, string patterns utilize a type of regular expression syntax. The syntax is as follows (note that string-based paths interpret the hyphen (-) and the dot (.) literally):

+: The endpoint must contain one or more of the previous characters (or groups), for example, a route path of ‘/ab+cd’ will match abcd, abbcd, abbbcd, and so on.

(): ‘/ab(cd)?e’ performs a?-match on the group (cd)—it matches abe and abcde.

?: The previous character (or group) must be 0 or 1, e.g., a route path of ‘/ab?cd’ will match endpoints acd or abcd

*: The * character may be placed anywhere in the endpoint’s string. Endpoints abcd, abXcd, abSOMErandomTEXTcd, and so on will be matched by a route path of ‘/ab*cd’, for example.

Conclusion

We now have more flexibility than ever before in creating our routes thanks to the integration of the Express 4.0 Router. To summarise, we can:
  • To define groups of routes, call express.Router() multiple times.
  • Use app.use() to apply express.Router() to a portion of our site and handle requests with route middleware.
  • To validate parameters using .param, use route middleware ()
  • To define numerous requests on a route, use app.route() as a shortcut to the Router.

With all of the different methods, we can create routes, I’m confident that our applications will improve in the future. If you have any questions or recommendations, please leave them in the comments section.